Textile Effleuent treatment - an overview
The textile dyeing industry consumes large quantities of water and produces large volumes of wastewater from different steps in the dyeing and finishing processes. Wastewater from printing and dyeing units is often rich in color, containing residues of reactive dyes and chemicals, and requires proper treatment before being released into the environment. The toxic effects of dyestuffs and other organic compounds, as well as acidic and alkaline contaminants, from industrial establishments on the general public are widely accepted. Increasing public concern about environmental issues has led to closure of several small-scale industries.
Interest in ecologically friendly, wet-processing textile techniques has increased in recent years because of increased awareness of environmental issues throughout the world. Consumers in developed countries are demanding biodegradable and ecologically friendly textiles. Cotton provides an ecologically friendly textile, but more than 50% of its production volume is dyed with reactive dyes. Unfortunately, dyes are unfavorable from an ecological point of view, because the effluents generated are heavily colored, contain high concentrations of salts, and exhibit high biological oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD) values.
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